San Pedro's wall

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Archaeological Research

The archaeological research carried out at the Cabezo de San Pedro since the late 1960s showed the historical importance of the area in the scientific panorama both at national and international level. The digging campaigns in 1977 and 1978 brought to light several strata from the late Bronze Age and especially a great construction believed to be a retaining wall. The latter would hint the presence of a fortress with Phoenician techniques over former constructions on the top of the hill. Thus, a series of phases was established to study the evolution of the local material culture from the Bronze Age. Several eastern elements due to the presence of Mediterranean navigators in Huelva were added  for this reason, this period is commonly known as Período Orientalizante (East-Like Period). So, the discussions about the Kingdom of Tartessos as well as the importance of Huelva in it  with a remarkable role in the production and commercialization of noble metals during that period  became an important historiographical theme.

The Protection Process

The protection process of the Cabezo de San Pedro was started according to the legislation which was in force in that time  the Law of 13 May 1933 on Defence, Preservation, and Increase of the National, Historical and Artistic Heritage. The Dirección General de Bellas Artes, Archivos y Bibliotecas (General Commission of Fine Arts, Archives, and Libraries) instituted proceedings for the Declaration of the zone as "Historical, Artistic, and Archaeological Monument" with the Resolution of 24 November 1980. The protection process started in the 1970s ended with the Law 16/1985 of 25 June on Spanish Historical Heritage as well as the newly-approved Law 1/1991 on Andalusian Historical Heritage. This also gave place to the processing of the special plan for the declaration of the Cabezo de San Pedro as ?Archaeological Site?. In 1992, this declaration finally took place according to the Decree 190/1992 of 3 November, which declares the Cabezo de San Pedro, Huelva, as Site of Cultural Interest in the category of Archaeological Site (BOJA No. 1, 5 January 1993). The delimitation of the terrain encompassed not only the relict of the hill but also the subsoil of the Church of San Pedro and San Pedro Square. Everything was included later in the Sector A1 of the Archaeological Area of Huelva (Order of 14 May 2001 on the Addition of the Archaeological Area of Huelva into the General Catalogue of Andalusian Historical Heritage from the BOJA No. 75 of 3 July 2001).

This site used to be the core of the city and the activity centre throughout the history of Huelva. Around San Pedro Square, we can find the main elements allowing the reconstruction of the past of the city from the faraway period of Tartessos to our days throughout the other historical periods ? Roman Onuba, Islamic and later Christian Welba during the Middle Ages as well as the latter centuries, represented by the religious constructions which have survived until today. The Mercado de Santa Fe, belonging in this historical route, is an example of iron and glass architecture and a symbol of that period of great industrial changes and modernizations at the end of the 19th century in Huelva.